Callose deposition, phloem-protein conformational changes and cell wall thickening are calcium-mediated occlusions occurring in the plant sieve elements in response to different biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the significance of these structures in plant–phytoplasma interactions requires in-depth investigations. We adopted a novel integrated approach, based on the combined use ofmicroscopic and molecular analyses, to investigate the structural modifications induced in tomato leaf tissues in presence of phytoplasmas, focusing on vascular bundles and on the occlusion structures. Phloemhyperplasia and string-like arrangement of xylem vessels were found in infected vascular tissue. The diverse occlusion structures were differentially modulated in the phloem in response to phytoplasma infection. Calloseamountwashigher in midribs from infected plants than in healthy ones. Callose was observed at sieve plates but not at pore-plasmodesma units. A putative callose synthase gene encoding a protein with high similarity to Arabidopsis CalS7, responsible for callose depositionat sieve plates,wasupregulated insymptomatic leaves, indicating a modulation in the response to stolbur infection. P-proteins showed configuration changes in infected sieve elements, exhibiting condensation of the filaments. The transcripts for a putative P-protein 2 and a sieve element occlusion-related protein were localized in the phloem but only the first one was modulated in the infected tissues.

Combined microscopy and molecular analyses show phloem occlusions and cell wall modifications in tomato leaves in response to ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’

PAGLIARI, Laura;LOSCHI, Alberto;SANTI, Simonetta;MUSETTI, Rita
2016

Abstract

Callose deposition, phloem-protein conformational changes and cell wall thickening are calcium-mediated occlusions occurring in the plant sieve elements in response to different biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the significance of these structures in plant–phytoplasma interactions requires in-depth investigations. We adopted a novel integrated approach, based on the combined use ofmicroscopic and molecular analyses, to investigate the structural modifications induced in tomato leaf tissues in presence of phytoplasmas, focusing on vascular bundles and on the occlusion structures. Phloemhyperplasia and string-like arrangement of xylem vessels were found in infected vascular tissue. The diverse occlusion structures were differentially modulated in the phloem in response to phytoplasma infection. Calloseamountwashigher in midribs from infected plants than in healthy ones. Callose was observed at sieve plates but not at pore-plasmodesma units. A putative callose synthase gene encoding a protein with high similarity to Arabidopsis CalS7, responsible for callose depositionat sieve plates,wasupregulated insymptomatic leaves, indicating a modulation in the response to stolbur infection. P-proteins showed configuration changes in infected sieve elements, exhibiting condensation of the filaments. The transcripts for a putative P-protein 2 and a sieve element occlusion-related protein were localized in the phloem but only the first one was modulated in the infected tissues.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1085305
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