Anagrus atomus (L.) is an egg parasitoid involved in the biological control of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) in vineyards. Sex pheromones play a crucial role in mate finding for several parasitoid species and could be used for monitoring under field conditions. We carried out laboratory and field studies aimed at assessing the existence and identity of a possible A. atomus sex pheromone. We found that males were significantly attracted by virgin females independent of age. Males were not attracted to individuals of the same sex, but they were attracted by a crude extract from an unmated female and its polar fraction. Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) was identified as the attractive substance and proved to be attractive not only in the olfactometer but also in another laboratory bioassay and under field conditions. Attraction of males, but not females, confirms that this is not an aggregation pheromone. This is the first sex-pheromone component identified in Mymaridae, however more compounds could be involved in the mating behaviour of A. atomus. The utility of a sex pheromone in A. atomus is discussed in the context of fitness returns.

Behavioural Evidence and Chemical Identification of a Female Sex Pheromone in Anagrus atomus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

Zanolli P.;Annoscia D.;Zanni V.;Nazzi F.
;
Pavan F.
2021

Abstract

Anagrus atomus (L.) is an egg parasitoid involved in the biological control of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) in vineyards. Sex pheromones play a crucial role in mate finding for several parasitoid species and could be used for monitoring under field conditions. We carried out laboratory and field studies aimed at assessing the existence and identity of a possible A. atomus sex pheromone. We found that males were significantly attracted by virgin females independent of age. Males were not attracted to individuals of the same sex, but they were attracted by a crude extract from an unmated female and its polar fraction. Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) was identified as the attractive substance and proved to be attractive not only in the olfactometer but also in another laboratory bioassay and under field conditions. Attraction of males, but not females, confirms that this is not an aggregation pheromone. This is the first sex-pheromone component identified in Mymaridae, however more compounds could be involved in the mating behaviour of A. atomus. The utility of a sex pheromone in A. atomus is discussed in the context of fitness returns.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
167.Zanolli2021_Article_BehaviouralEvidenceAndChemical.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.34 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.34 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1205906
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact