Background: Cellular senescence is a permanent state of replicative arrest defined by a specific pattern of gene expression. The epigenome in senescent cells is sculptured in order to sustain the new transcriptional requirements, particularly at enhancers and super-enhancers. How these distal regulatory elements are dynamically modulated is not completely defined. Results: Enhancer regions are defined by the presence of H3K27 acetylation marks, which can be modulated by class IIa HDACs, as part of multi-protein complexes. Here, we explore the regulation of class IIa HDACs in different models of senescence. We find that HDAC4 is polyubiquitylated and degraded during all types of senescence and it selectively binds and monitors H3K27ac levels at specific enhancers and super-enhancers that supervise the senescent transcriptome. Frequently, these HDAC4-modulated elements are also monitored by AP-1/p300. The deletion of HDAC4 in transformed cells which have bypassed oncogene-induced senescence is coupled to the re-appearance of senescence and the execution of the AP-1/p300 epigenetic program. Conclusions: Overall, our manuscript highlights a role of HDAC4 as an epigenetic reader and controller of enhancers and super-enhancers that supervise the senescence program. More generally, we unveil an epigenetic checkpoint that has important consequences in aging and cancer.

HDAC4 degradation during senescence unleashes an epigenetic program driven by AP-1/p300 at selected enhancers and super-enhancers

Di Giorgio E.;Dalla E.;Ranzino L.;Minisini M.;Brancolini C.
2021

Abstract

Background: Cellular senescence is a permanent state of replicative arrest defined by a specific pattern of gene expression. The epigenome in senescent cells is sculptured in order to sustain the new transcriptional requirements, particularly at enhancers and super-enhancers. How these distal regulatory elements are dynamically modulated is not completely defined. Results: Enhancer regions are defined by the presence of H3K27 acetylation marks, which can be modulated by class IIa HDACs, as part of multi-protein complexes. Here, we explore the regulation of class IIa HDACs in different models of senescence. We find that HDAC4 is polyubiquitylated and degraded during all types of senescence and it selectively binds and monitors H3K27ac levels at specific enhancers and super-enhancers that supervise the senescent transcriptome. Frequently, these HDAC4-modulated elements are also monitored by AP-1/p300. The deletion of HDAC4 in transformed cells which have bypassed oncogene-induced senescence is coupled to the re-appearance of senescence and the execution of the AP-1/p300 epigenetic program. Conclusions: Overall, our manuscript highlights a role of HDAC4 as an epigenetic reader and controller of enhancers and super-enhancers that supervise the senescence program. More generally, we unveil an epigenetic checkpoint that has important consequences in aging and cancer.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1208740
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