Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. It is known to be a multifactorial disease and several causes are associated with its occurrence as well as progression. However, the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is widely considered its major pathogenic hallmark. Additionally, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and aging (cellular senescence) are considered as additional hits affecting the disease pathology. Several studies are now suggesting important role of inflammation in AD, which shifts our thought towards the brain’s resident immune cells, microglia, and astrocytes; how they interact with neurons; and how these interactions are affected by intra and extracellular stressful factors. These interactions can be modulated by different mechanisms and pathways, in which exosomes could play an important role. Exosomes are multivesicular bodies secreted by nearly all types of cells. The exosomes secreted by glial cells or neurons affect the interactions and thus the physiology of these cells by transmitting miRNAs, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes can serve as a friend or foe to the neuron function, depending upon the carried signals. Exosomes, from the healthy microenvironment, may assist neuron function and health, whereas, from the stressed microenvironment, they carry oxidative and inflammatory signals to the neurons and thus prove detrimental to the neuronal function. Furthermore, exosomes can cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and from the blood plasma they can enter the brain cells and activate microglia and astrocytes. Exosomes can transport Aβ or Tau, cytokines, miRNAs between the cells, and alter the physiology of recipient cells. They can also assist in Aβ clearance and regulation of synaptic activity. The exosomes derived from different cells play different roles, and this field is still in its infancy stage. This review advocates exosomes’ role as a friend or foe in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in the case of Alzheimer’s disease.

Brain Exosomes: Friend or Foe in Alzheimer’s Disease?

Tell G.;Gigli G. L.;Janes F.;
2021

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. It is known to be a multifactorial disease and several causes are associated with its occurrence as well as progression. However, the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is widely considered its major pathogenic hallmark. Additionally, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and aging (cellular senescence) are considered as additional hits affecting the disease pathology. Several studies are now suggesting important role of inflammation in AD, which shifts our thought towards the brain’s resident immune cells, microglia, and astrocytes; how they interact with neurons; and how these interactions are affected by intra and extracellular stressful factors. These interactions can be modulated by different mechanisms and pathways, in which exosomes could play an important role. Exosomes are multivesicular bodies secreted by nearly all types of cells. The exosomes secreted by glial cells or neurons affect the interactions and thus the physiology of these cells by transmitting miRNAs, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes can serve as a friend or foe to the neuron function, depending upon the carried signals. Exosomes, from the healthy microenvironment, may assist neuron function and health, whereas, from the stressed microenvironment, they carry oxidative and inflammatory signals to the neurons and thus prove detrimental to the neuronal function. Furthermore, exosomes can cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and from the blood plasma they can enter the brain cells and activate microglia and astrocytes. Exosomes can transport Aβ or Tau, cytokines, miRNAs between the cells, and alter the physiology of recipient cells. They can also assist in Aβ clearance and regulation of synaptic activity. The exosomes derived from different cells play different roles, and this field is still in its infancy stage. This review advocates exosomes’ role as a friend or foe in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in the case of Alzheimer’s disease.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1213968
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