Grapevines are being challenged by climate changes, forcing winemakers to implement irrigation systems to cope with excessive water stress. Previous studies focused on a small set of international varieties, and only few data are available for terroirs hosting cultivars with possibly different responses to drought stress. In this light, we monitored grapevine water status and grape's physical and chemical composition, as well as concentration and structural characteristics of grape extractable polyphenols, in ten different Refošk vineyards located in the Classical Karst terroir during 2018 and 2019. Grapevines did not suffer severe stress during the two years, but their response to water shortage periods was highly heterogeneous, as pre-dawn (Ψpd) and minimum (Ψmin) leaf water potential significantly differed between vineyards, especially during the drier part of the season. Moreover, the timing of maximum water stress differed in the two years, as in 2019 longer water shortage periods and higher temperature occurred at flowering stage and before veraison, while in 2018 they were higher after veraison. These differences influenced berry's quality, as titratable and malic acid concentration in juice, as well as total anthocyanin, total polyphenols and higher high molecular weight proanthocyanidins (HMWP) concentration in skins, were higher in 2019 than in 2018. Regarding seed proanthocyanidins, HMWP concentration, mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) and percentage of galloylation (G) in seeds were higher in 2018 than in 2019. The differences in water status measured in spatially close-related vineyards strongly support the importance of monitoring grapevines’ water status dynamics to design adequate and effective water management activities rather than relying on climate data solely. Moreover, the timing of water shortage periods also played a role in determining Refošk grape quality. Our analyses showed that the higher (but still moderate, with Ψpd and Ψmin mean values around −0.50 and −1.25 MPa, respectively) water stress between veraison and harvest occurred in 2018 might reduce Refošk grape acidity and increase concentration, polymerisation and galloylation of seed extractable proanthocyanidins.

High spatial heterogeneity of water stress levels in Refošk grapevines cultivated in Classical Karst

Petruzzellis F.
Primo
Conceptualization
;
Calderan A.
Investigation
;
Sivilotti P.
Funding Acquisition
;
2022

Abstract

Grapevines are being challenged by climate changes, forcing winemakers to implement irrigation systems to cope with excessive water stress. Previous studies focused on a small set of international varieties, and only few data are available for terroirs hosting cultivars with possibly different responses to drought stress. In this light, we monitored grapevine water status and grape's physical and chemical composition, as well as concentration and structural characteristics of grape extractable polyphenols, in ten different Refošk vineyards located in the Classical Karst terroir during 2018 and 2019. Grapevines did not suffer severe stress during the two years, but their response to water shortage periods was highly heterogeneous, as pre-dawn (Ψpd) and minimum (Ψmin) leaf water potential significantly differed between vineyards, especially during the drier part of the season. Moreover, the timing of maximum water stress differed in the two years, as in 2019 longer water shortage periods and higher temperature occurred at flowering stage and before veraison, while in 2018 they were higher after veraison. These differences influenced berry's quality, as titratable and malic acid concentration in juice, as well as total anthocyanin, total polyphenols and higher high molecular weight proanthocyanidins (HMWP) concentration in skins, were higher in 2019 than in 2018. Regarding seed proanthocyanidins, HMWP concentration, mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) and percentage of galloylation (G) in seeds were higher in 2018 than in 2019. The differences in water status measured in spatially close-related vineyards strongly support the importance of monitoring grapevines’ water status dynamics to design adequate and effective water management activities rather than relying on climate data solely. Moreover, the timing of water shortage periods also played a role in determining Refošk grape quality. Our analyses showed that the higher (but still moderate, with Ψpd and Ψmin mean values around −0.50 and −1.25 MPa, respectively) water stress between veraison and harvest occurred in 2018 might reduce Refošk grape acidity and increase concentration, polymerisation and galloylation of seed extractable proanthocyanidins.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1214070
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