PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poststernotomy mediastinitis (PSM) remains a serious infection and is significantly associated with high morbidity, short-term and long-term mortality. Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are an underestimated cause of PSM, and there is little information on the risk factors, prevention, diagnosis and management of GNB PSM. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathogenesis of PSM is the result of a complex and multifactorial interplay between intraoperative wound contamination, host-related and surgical host factors but GNB are probably mostly translocated from other host site infections. GNB are frequent cause of PSM (18-38% of cases) and GNB PSM have shown to more frequently polymicrobial (20-44%). GNG PSM has shown to occur earlier than Gram-positive PSM. Early diagnosis is crucial to successful treatment. The management of PSM needs a combination of culture-directed antimicrobial therapy and an early extensive surgical debridement with either immediate or delayed closure of the sternal space. Antibiotic treatment choice and duration should be based on clinical evaluation, evolution of inflammatory markers, microbiological tests and imaging studies. Mortality has shown to be significantly higher with GNB PSM compared with other causes and the inappropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy may explain the worse outcome of GNB PSM. SUMMARY: GNB PSM is usually undervalued in the setting of PSM and have shown to be a frequent cause of inappropriate treatment with adverse prognostic potential. There is a need for efforts to improve knowledge to prevent and adequately treat GNB PSM.

Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of mediastinitis after cardiac surgery

Tascini C.
2021

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poststernotomy mediastinitis (PSM) remains a serious infection and is significantly associated with high morbidity, short-term and long-term mortality. Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are an underestimated cause of PSM, and there is little information on the risk factors, prevention, diagnosis and management of GNB PSM. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathogenesis of PSM is the result of a complex and multifactorial interplay between intraoperative wound contamination, host-related and surgical host factors but GNB are probably mostly translocated from other host site infections. GNB are frequent cause of PSM (18-38% of cases) and GNB PSM have shown to more frequently polymicrobial (20-44%). GNG PSM has shown to occur earlier than Gram-positive PSM. Early diagnosis is crucial to successful treatment. The management of PSM needs a combination of culture-directed antimicrobial therapy and an early extensive surgical debridement with either immediate or delayed closure of the sternal space. Antibiotic treatment choice and duration should be based on clinical evaluation, evolution of inflammatory markers, microbiological tests and imaging studies. Mortality has shown to be significantly higher with GNB PSM compared with other causes and the inappropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy may explain the worse outcome of GNB PSM. SUMMARY: GNB PSM is usually undervalued in the setting of PSM and have shown to be a frequent cause of inappropriate treatment with adverse prognostic potential. There is a need for efforts to improve knowledge to prevent and adequately treat GNB PSM.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1217179
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact