Vitamin D is a hormone with both genomic and non-genomic actions. It exerts its activity by binding vitamin D receptor (VDR), which belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors and ligand-activated transcription factors. Since VDR has been found in various tissues, it has been estimated that it regulates approximately 3% of the human genome. Several recent studies have shown pleiotropic effects of vitamin D in various processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair and apoptosis and its involvement in different pathophysiological conditions as inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and anemia. It has been suggested that vitamin D could play an important role in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. Moderate to strong associations between lower serum vitamin D concentrations and stroke and cardiovascular events have been identified in different analytic approaches, even after controlling for traditional demographic and lifestyle covariates. The mechanisms behind the associations between vitamin D and cerebrovascular and cardiologic profiles have been widely examined both in animal and human studies. Optimization of vitamin D levels in human subjects may improve insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function and lower levels of inflammatory markers. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that altered gene expression of VDR and 1,25D3-membrane-associated rapid response steroid-binding (1,25D3-MARRS) receptor influences the role of vitamin D within neurons and allows them to be more prone to degeneration. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D signaling and the consequences of vitamin D deficiency in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders.

The peculiar role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases

Beltrami A. P.;
2022

Abstract

Vitamin D is a hormone with both genomic and non-genomic actions. It exerts its activity by binding vitamin D receptor (VDR), which belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors and ligand-activated transcription factors. Since VDR has been found in various tissues, it has been estimated that it regulates approximately 3% of the human genome. Several recent studies have shown pleiotropic effects of vitamin D in various processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair and apoptosis and its involvement in different pathophysiological conditions as inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and anemia. It has been suggested that vitamin D could play an important role in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. Moderate to strong associations between lower serum vitamin D concentrations and stroke and cardiovascular events have been identified in different analytic approaches, even after controlling for traditional demographic and lifestyle covariates. The mechanisms behind the associations between vitamin D and cerebrovascular and cardiologic profiles have been widely examined both in animal and human studies. Optimization of vitamin D levels in human subjects may improve insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function and lower levels of inflammatory markers. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that altered gene expression of VDR and 1,25D3-membrane-associated rapid response steroid-binding (1,25D3-MARRS) receptor influences the role of vitamin D within neurons and allows them to be more prone to degeneration. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D signaling and the consequences of vitamin D deficiency in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1217540
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