Calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) had been previously found to be overexpressed by aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) subjected to in vitro calcific induction. Here, cPLA2α expression was immunohistochemically assayed in porcine aortic valve leaflets (iAVLs) that had undergone accelerated calcification subsequent to 2- to 28-day-long implantation in rat subcutis. A time-dependent increase in cPLA2α-positive AVICs paralleled mineralization progression depending on dramatic cell membrane degeneration with the release of hydroxyapatite-nucleating acidic lipid material, as revealed by immunogold particles decorating organelle membranes in 2d-iAVLs, as well as membrane-derived lipid byproducts in 7d- to 28d-iAVLs. Additional positivity was detected for (i) pro-inflammatory IL-6, mostly exhibited by rat peri-implant cells surrounding 14d- and 28d-iAVLs; (ii) calcium-binding osteopontin, with time-dependent increase and no ossification occurrence; (iii) anti-calcific fetuin-A, mostly restricted to blood plasma within vessels irrorating the connective envelopes of 28d-iAVLs; (iv) early apoptosis marker annexin-V, limited to sporadic AVICs in all iAVLs. No positivity was found for either apoptosis executioner cleaved caspase-3 or autophagy marker MAP1. In conclusion, cPLA2α appears to be a factor characterizing AVL calcification concurrently with a distinct still uncoded cell death form also in an animal model, as well as a putative target for the prevention and treatment of calcific valve diseases.

Calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2α as key factor in calcification of subdermally implanted aortic valve leaflets

Antonella Bonetti;Magali Contin;Maurizio Marchini;Fulvia Ortolani
2022

Abstract

Calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) had been previously found to be overexpressed by aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) subjected to in vitro calcific induction. Here, cPLA2α expression was immunohistochemically assayed in porcine aortic valve leaflets (iAVLs) that had undergone accelerated calcification subsequent to 2- to 28-day-long implantation in rat subcutis. A time-dependent increase in cPLA2α-positive AVICs paralleled mineralization progression depending on dramatic cell membrane degeneration with the release of hydroxyapatite-nucleating acidic lipid material, as revealed by immunogold particles decorating organelle membranes in 2d-iAVLs, as well as membrane-derived lipid byproducts in 7d- to 28d-iAVLs. Additional positivity was detected for (i) pro-inflammatory IL-6, mostly exhibited by rat peri-implant cells surrounding 14d- and 28d-iAVLs; (ii) calcium-binding osteopontin, with time-dependent increase and no ossification occurrence; (iii) anti-calcific fetuin-A, mostly restricted to blood plasma within vessels irrorating the connective envelopes of 28d-iAVLs; (iv) early apoptosis marker annexin-V, limited to sporadic AVICs in all iAVLs. No positivity was found for either apoptosis executioner cleaved caspase-3 or autophagy marker MAP1. In conclusion, cPLA2α appears to be a factor characterizing AVL calcification concurrently with a distinct still uncoded cell death form also in an animal model, as well as a putative target for the prevention and treatment of calcific valve diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1219752
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