Hyperglycemia is considered one of the main risk factors for atherosclerosis, since high glucose levels trigger multiple pathological processes, such as oxidative stress and hyperproduc-tion of pro-inflammatory mediators, leading to endothelial dysfunction. In this context, recently approved drugs, such as glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), could be considered a powerful tool for to reduce glucose concentration and cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance have been found to be deficient in vitamin D. Recent studies pointed out the unfavorable prognostic values of T2DM and vitamin D deficiency in patients with cardiac dysfunc-tion, either when considered individually or together, which shed light on the role of vitamin D in general health status. New evidence suggests that SGLT2i could adversely affect the production of vitamin D, thereby increasing the risk of fractures, which are common in patients with T2DM. There-fore, given the biological effects of vitamin D as an anti-inflammatory mediator and a regulator of endothelial function and calcium equilibrium, these new findings should be taken into consideration as well. The aim of this review is to gather the latest advancements regarding the use of antidiabetic and antiplatelet drugs coupled with vitamin D supplementation to control glucose levels, therefore reducing the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Old and Novel Therapeutic Approaches in the Management of Hyperglycemia, an Important Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis

Beltrami A. P.;
2022

Abstract

Hyperglycemia is considered one of the main risk factors for atherosclerosis, since high glucose levels trigger multiple pathological processes, such as oxidative stress and hyperproduc-tion of pro-inflammatory mediators, leading to endothelial dysfunction. In this context, recently approved drugs, such as glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), could be considered a powerful tool for to reduce glucose concentration and cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance have been found to be deficient in vitamin D. Recent studies pointed out the unfavorable prognostic values of T2DM and vitamin D deficiency in patients with cardiac dysfunc-tion, either when considered individually or together, which shed light on the role of vitamin D in general health status. New evidence suggests that SGLT2i could adversely affect the production of vitamin D, thereby increasing the risk of fractures, which are common in patients with T2DM. There-fore, given the biological effects of vitamin D as an anti-inflammatory mediator and a regulator of endothelial function and calcium equilibrium, these new findings should be taken into consideration as well. The aim of this review is to gather the latest advancements regarding the use of antidiabetic and antiplatelet drugs coupled with vitamin D supplementation to control glucose levels, therefore reducing the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1221514
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