Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), or the coexistence of these two entities shares similar risk factors and clinical features. For these conditions, a common origin has been supposed. Even if the majority of patients show a favorable course and a good prognosis, a small percentage of cases develop neurological complications. Up to date, only about 30 cases of PRES associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Cases: Here, we present two cases of a particularly aggressive PRES/RCVS overlap syndrome, associated with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) variants of GBS, respectively, presenting with similar initial clinical aspects and developing both an atypical and unfavorable outcome. On MRI examination, the first patient showed typical aspects of PRES, while, in the second case, radiological features were atypical and characterized by diffusion restriction on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. The first patient demonstrated rapid worsening of clinical conditions until death; the second one manifested and maintained neurological deficits with a permanent disability. Conclusions: We suggest that PRES may conceal RCVS aspects, especially in most severe cases or when associated with a dysimmune syndrome in which autoimmune system and endothelial dysfunction probably play a prominent role in the pathogenesis. Although the role of IVIg treatment in the pathogenesis of PRES has been proposed, we suggest that GBS itself should be considered an independent risk factor in developing PRES.

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Just a Problem of Immunoglobulins? Controversy From Two Atypical Case Reports

Del Negro I.
;
Gigli G. L.;Valente M.
2022

Abstract

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), or the coexistence of these two entities shares similar risk factors and clinical features. For these conditions, a common origin has been supposed. Even if the majority of patients show a favorable course and a good prognosis, a small percentage of cases develop neurological complications. Up to date, only about 30 cases of PRES associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Cases: Here, we present two cases of a particularly aggressive PRES/RCVS overlap syndrome, associated with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) variants of GBS, respectively, presenting with similar initial clinical aspects and developing both an atypical and unfavorable outcome. On MRI examination, the first patient showed typical aspects of PRES, while, in the second case, radiological features were atypical and characterized by diffusion restriction on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. The first patient demonstrated rapid worsening of clinical conditions until death; the second one manifested and maintained neurological deficits with a permanent disability. Conclusions: We suggest that PRES may conceal RCVS aspects, especially in most severe cases or when associated with a dysimmune syndrome in which autoimmune system and endothelial dysfunction probably play a prominent role in the pathogenesis. Although the role of IVIg treatment in the pathogenesis of PRES has been proposed, we suggest that GBS itself should be considered an independent risk factor in developing PRES.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1226399
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