Receiving feedback on action correctness is a relevant factor in learning, but only a few recent studies have investigated the neural bases involved in feedback processing and its consequences on performance. Several event-related potentials (ERP) studies investigated the feedback-related negativity, which is an ERP occurring after the presentation of a feedback stimulus. In contrast, the present study investigates the effect of providing feedback on brain activities before and after the presentation of an imperative stimulus with the aim to show how this could have an impact on cognitive functions related to anticipatory and post-stimulus task processing. Participants performed a standard visuomotor task and a modified version of the same task in which feedback sounds were emitted when participants committed performance errors. Overall, results showed that in the feedback task subjects have better cognitive control than in the standard task. All behavioral measures were improved in the feedback task. At the brain level, all the studied components were modulated by the presence of the feedback cue. Results pointed to a possible increase of anticipatory activity in the prefrontal cortex, a reduction of perceptual awareness in areas previously associated with the anterior insular cortex, and an increase of activity associated with selective attention in sensory cortices.
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