Background: Cryopreservation of PBSC for allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was implemented due to the current Coronavirus 2019 pandemic. The impact of match unrelated donor (MUD) graft freezing on the outcome of allo-HSCT in terms of hematological recovery, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and survival are still controversial. Methods: In this study, we compared graft composition, clinical characteristics, and outcome of 31 allo-HSCT from MUD cryopreserved PBSC (Cryo Group) with 23 matched-pair allo-HSCT from fresh MUD PBSC (Fresh Group) performed in our center between January 2020 and July 2021. Results: No significant differences were recognized in clinical characteristics of patients, donors, and transplants between the Cryo and Fresh groups except for a better prognostic comorbidity index (HCT-CI) of the Cryo group. In the Cryo Group, the median time from apheresis to cryopreservation was 46.0 h (range 23.8–53.5), while the median time from cells collection and reinfusion was 13.9 days (range 5.8–28.1). In the Fresh Group, median time from apheresis to reinfusion was 35.6 h (range 21.4–51.2). The number of viable (7-AAD negative) CD34+ cells per kg patient infused was significantly lower in the Cryo Group (5.2 ± 1.9 × 106/kg vs. 7.0 ± 1.3 × 106/kg; p < 0.001). Indeed, there was a 36% (11–70) median loss of viable CD34+/kg cells after freezing. All patients engrafted: median time to neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 × 109/L) was 13.5 days (range 12–15) for Cryo Group and 14 days (range 13–16) days for Fresh Group (p = 0.522), while the median time to platelet engraftment (>20 × 109/L) was, respectively, 14 (range 12–18) and 15 (range 12–17) days (p = 0.904). The incidence of grade ≥ 2 acute GVHD was similar in the two groups (56.5% Cryo Group vs. 60.0% Fresh Group; p = 0.832) and no differences in terms of OS (p = 0.090), PFS (p = 0.200) and TRM (p = 0.970) were observed between the Cryo and Fresh groups. Conclusions: In our series, no differences between the Cryo and Fresh groups were found in engraftment, grade ≥ 2 acute GVHD incidence, OS, PFS, and TRM despite a lower CD34+ infused dose in the Cryo Group. Frozen PBSCs could be considered a safe option also for allo-HSCT from MUD but a higher amount of PBSC should be collected to warrant an adequate viable CD34+ post-thawing.

Impact of Cryopreservation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells (PBSC) in Transplantation from Matched Unrelated Donor (MUD)

Gabriele Facchin
;
Miriam Isola;Maria De Martino;Giuseppe Petruzzellis;Umberto Pizzano;Renato Fanin;Francesca Patriarca
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Cryopreservation of PBSC for allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was implemented due to the current Coronavirus 2019 pandemic. The impact of match unrelated donor (MUD) graft freezing on the outcome of allo-HSCT in terms of hematological recovery, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and survival are still controversial. Methods: In this study, we compared graft composition, clinical characteristics, and outcome of 31 allo-HSCT from MUD cryopreserved PBSC (Cryo Group) with 23 matched-pair allo-HSCT from fresh MUD PBSC (Fresh Group) performed in our center between January 2020 and July 2021. Results: No significant differences were recognized in clinical characteristics of patients, donors, and transplants between the Cryo and Fresh groups except for a better prognostic comorbidity index (HCT-CI) of the Cryo group. In the Cryo Group, the median time from apheresis to cryopreservation was 46.0 h (range 23.8–53.5), while the median time from cells collection and reinfusion was 13.9 days (range 5.8–28.1). In the Fresh Group, median time from apheresis to reinfusion was 35.6 h (range 21.4–51.2). The number of viable (7-AAD negative) CD34+ cells per kg patient infused was significantly lower in the Cryo Group (5.2 ± 1.9 × 106/kg vs. 7.0 ± 1.3 × 106/kg; p < 0.001). Indeed, there was a 36% (11–70) median loss of viable CD34+/kg cells after freezing. All patients engrafted: median time to neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 × 109/L) was 13.5 days (range 12–15) for Cryo Group and 14 days (range 13–16) days for Fresh Group (p = 0.522), while the median time to platelet engraftment (>20 × 109/L) was, respectively, 14 (range 12–18) and 15 (range 12–17) days (p = 0.904). The incidence of grade ≥ 2 acute GVHD was similar in the two groups (56.5% Cryo Group vs. 60.0% Fresh Group; p = 0.832) and no differences in terms of OS (p = 0.090), PFS (p = 0.200) and TRM (p = 0.970) were observed between the Cryo and Fresh groups. Conclusions: In our series, no differences between the Cryo and Fresh groups were found in engraftment, grade ≥ 2 acute GVHD incidence, OS, PFS, and TRM despite a lower CD34+ infused dose in the Cryo Group. Frozen PBSCs could be considered a safe option also for allo-HSCT from MUD but a higher amount of PBSC should be collected to warrant an adequate viable CD34+ post-thawing.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11390/1232264
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