Background: Delirium is a frequent and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome leading to worse prog- nosis including mortality. Patients with ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke are vulnerable to delirium. However, predisposing and precipitating factors have not been fully discovered to date, leaving this area of practice under-represented in available guidelines. Aims: To describe the prevalence, associated factors and main in-hospital outcomes of post-stroke delir- ium. Methods: A multi-centre observational study was conducted from 2019 to 2020 and reported according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Data were collected in stroke units located in two large hospitals in the North-East region of Italy. Consecutive adult patients with ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke with a Glasgow Coma Scale > 5, who were willing to partic- ipate, were included. Data at admission, during the in-hospital stay and at discharge were collected by trained nurses, not involved in the care of patients, with (a) validated tools, (b) direct observation, and (c) access of patients’ records. Results: A total of 78 patients were enrolled (mean 73.1 years; 59% male), and 70.5% of them had suffered an ischaemic stroke. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission was 8.2 ±7.0. A total of 34.6% of patients developed post-stroke delirium; the onset was mainly on the first day of admission (70.4%) and the condition lasted for an average of 3.7 days (SD 2.6). In the multivariate logistic regression, 64.1% of the delirium variance was explained by the NIHSS scores (RR 1.259, 95%CI 1.035–1.533; p = 0.022). Patients with post-stroke delirium reported higher functional dependence at discharge and the need for more delaying of hospital care to be admitted in rehabilitation units. Conclusions: At admission, higher scores in the NIHSS evaluation might suggest which patients are at an increased risk of delirium. Avoiding interventions that could potentially increase this risk, together with continuous surveillance, become imperative for nurses who are constantly and closely present by their patients’ side, in order to prevent this serious complication.

Delirium prevalence, risk factors and outcomes among patients with acute stroke: A multi-centre observational study

Palese, Alvisa
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Delirium is a frequent and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome leading to worse prog- nosis including mortality. Patients with ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke are vulnerable to delirium. However, predisposing and precipitating factors have not been fully discovered to date, leaving this area of practice under-represented in available guidelines. Aims: To describe the prevalence, associated factors and main in-hospital outcomes of post-stroke delir- ium. Methods: A multi-centre observational study was conducted from 2019 to 2020 and reported according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Data were collected in stroke units located in two large hospitals in the North-East region of Italy. Consecutive adult patients with ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke with a Glasgow Coma Scale > 5, who were willing to partic- ipate, were included. Data at admission, during the in-hospital stay and at discharge were collected by trained nurses, not involved in the care of patients, with (a) validated tools, (b) direct observation, and (c) access of patients’ records. Results: A total of 78 patients were enrolled (mean 73.1 years; 59% male), and 70.5% of them had suffered an ischaemic stroke. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission was 8.2 ±7.0. A total of 34.6% of patients developed post-stroke delirium; the onset was mainly on the first day of admission (70.4%) and the condition lasted for an average of 3.7 days (SD 2.6). In the multivariate logistic regression, 64.1% of the delirium variance was explained by the NIHSS scores (RR 1.259, 95%CI 1.035–1.533; p = 0.022). Patients with post-stroke delirium reported higher functional dependence at discharge and the need for more delaying of hospital care to be admitted in rehabilitation units. Conclusions: At admission, higher scores in the NIHSS evaluation might suggest which patients are at an increased risk of delirium. Avoiding interventions that could potentially increase this risk, together with continuous surveillance, become imperative for nurses who are constantly and closely present by their patients’ side, in order to prevent this serious complication.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11390/1233624
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