Calcification starts with hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallization on cell membranous components, as with aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), wherein a cell-membrane-derived substance containing acidic phospholipids (PPM/PPLs) acts as major crystal nucleator. Since nucleic acid removal is recommended to prevent calcification in valve biosubstitutes derived from decellularized valve scaffolds, the involvement of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nuclear chromatin (NC) was here explored in three distinct contexts: (i) bovine AVIC pro-calcific cultures; (ii) porcine aortic valve leaflets that had undergone accelerated calcification after xenogeneic subdermal implantation; and (iii) human aortic valve leaflets affected by calcific stenosis. Ultrastructurally, shared AVIC degenerative patterns included (i) the melting of ribosomes with PPM/PPLs, and the same for apparently well-featured NC; (ii) selective precipitation of silver particles on all three components after adapted von Kossa reactions; and (iii) labelling by anti-rRNA immunogold particles. Shared features were also provided by parallel light microscopy. In conclusion, the present results indicate that rRNA and NC contribute to AVIC mineralization in vitro and in vivo, with their anionic charges enhancing the HA nucleation capacity exerted by PPM/PPL substrates, supporting the concept that nucleic acid removal is needed for valve pre-implantation treatments, besides better elucidating the modality of pro-calcific cell death.

Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical detection of hydroxyapatite nucleating role by rRNA and nuclear chromatin derivatives in aortic valve calcification: in vitro and in vivo pro-calcific animal models and actual calcific disease in humans

Antonella Bonetti;Magali Contin;Fulvia Ortolani
2023-01-01

Abstract

Calcification starts with hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallization on cell membranous components, as with aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), wherein a cell-membrane-derived substance containing acidic phospholipids (PPM/PPLs) acts as major crystal nucleator. Since nucleic acid removal is recommended to prevent calcification in valve biosubstitutes derived from decellularized valve scaffolds, the involvement of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nuclear chromatin (NC) was here explored in three distinct contexts: (i) bovine AVIC pro-calcific cultures; (ii) porcine aortic valve leaflets that had undergone accelerated calcification after xenogeneic subdermal implantation; and (iii) human aortic valve leaflets affected by calcific stenosis. Ultrastructurally, shared AVIC degenerative patterns included (i) the melting of ribosomes with PPM/PPLs, and the same for apparently well-featured NC; (ii) selective precipitation of silver particles on all three components after adapted von Kossa reactions; and (iii) labelling by anti-rRNA immunogold particles. Shared features were also provided by parallel light microscopy. In conclusion, the present results indicate that rRNA and NC contribute to AVIC mineralization in vitro and in vivo, with their anionic charges enhancing the HA nucleation capacity exerted by PPM/PPL substrates, supporting the concept that nucleic acid removal is needed for valve pre-implantation treatments, besides better elucidating the modality of pro-calcific cell death.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Bonetti et al_IJMS_2023.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: pdf
Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 98.17 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
98.17 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11390/1240628
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact