The carcinogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) results from a complex series of events. Chronic inflammation and infections are crucial in this context. Infiltrating M2 type macrophages, as well as neutrophils and T lymphocytes, contribute to PCa development, progression and response to therapy. The preliminary findings on the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with PCa were not encouraging. However, a series of studies investigating anti-PD-L1 agents such as Atezolizumab, Avelumab and Durvalumab used alone or in combination with other immunotherapies, chemotherapy or locoregional approaches are in course in this tumor. In this review, we illustrate the role of immune cells and PD-L1 expression during PCa carcinogenesis and progression, with a focus on ongoing clinical trials on anti-PD-L1 agents in this context.
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