Background: Flavescence dorée (FD) is a grapevine disease caused by phytoplasma and it is one of the most destructive pathologies in Europe. Nowadays, the only strategies used to control the epidemics are insecticides against vector, but more sustainable techniques are required. Completely resistant Vitis vinifera varieties have not been uncovered yet, but differences in susceptibility among cultivars and spontaneous recovery from FD symptoms have been observed. The grapevine cultivar ‘Tocai friulano’ shows very low susceptibility to FD but its defence strategy to counteract the phytoplasma spread has not been deciphered yet. In this work, the mechanisms occurring within ‘Tocai friulano’ FD-infected plants were examined in depth to identify the phytoplasma distribution and the defence pathways involved. Results: In ‘Tocai friulano’ symptoms of FD-infection remained confined near the area where they appeared during all the vegetative season. Analyses of secondary phloem showed a total absence of FD phytoplasma (FDp) in the trunk and its disappearance in 2-year-old arms from July to November, which was different from ‘Pinot gris’, a highly susceptible variety. Diverse modulations of defence genes and accumulation of metabolites were revealed in 1-year-old canes of ‘Tocai friulano’ FD-infected plants, depending on the sanitary status. Symptomatic portions showed high activation of both jasmonate- and salicylate-mediated responses, together with a great accumulation of resveratrol. Whereas activation of jasmonate-mediated response and high content of ε-viniferin were identified in asymptomatic 1-year-old cane portions close to the symptomatic ones. Conclusion: Successful defence mechanisms activated near the symptomatic areas allowed the compartmentation of FD symptoms and phytoplasmas within the infected ‘Tocai friulano’ plants. These results could suggest specific agronomical practices to be adopted during FD management of this variety, and drive research of resistance genes against FD.

A successful defence strategy in grapevine cultivar ‘Tocai friulano’ provides compartmentation of grapevine Flavescence dorée phytoplasma

Casarin S.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Flavescence dorée (FD) is a grapevine disease caused by phytoplasma and it is one of the most destructive pathologies in Europe. Nowadays, the only strategies used to control the epidemics are insecticides against vector, but more sustainable techniques are required. Completely resistant Vitis vinifera varieties have not been uncovered yet, but differences in susceptibility among cultivars and spontaneous recovery from FD symptoms have been observed. The grapevine cultivar ‘Tocai friulano’ shows very low susceptibility to FD but its defence strategy to counteract the phytoplasma spread has not been deciphered yet. In this work, the mechanisms occurring within ‘Tocai friulano’ FD-infected plants were examined in depth to identify the phytoplasma distribution and the defence pathways involved. Results: In ‘Tocai friulano’ symptoms of FD-infection remained confined near the area where they appeared during all the vegetative season. Analyses of secondary phloem showed a total absence of FD phytoplasma (FDp) in the trunk and its disappearance in 2-year-old arms from July to November, which was different from ‘Pinot gris’, a highly susceptible variety. Diverse modulations of defence genes and accumulation of metabolites were revealed in 1-year-old canes of ‘Tocai friulano’ FD-infected plants, depending on the sanitary status. Symptomatic portions showed high activation of both jasmonate- and salicylate-mediated responses, together with a great accumulation of resveratrol. Whereas activation of jasmonate-mediated response and high content of ε-viniferin were identified in asymptomatic 1-year-old cane portions close to the symptomatic ones. Conclusion: Successful defence mechanisms activated near the symptomatic areas allowed the compartmentation of FD symptoms and phytoplasmas within the infected ‘Tocai friulano’ plants. These results could suggest specific agronomical practices to be adopted during FD management of this variety, and drive research of resistance genes against FD.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11390/1245464
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