The need for providing rapid and, possibly, on-the-spot analytical results in the case of intoxication has prompted researchers to develop rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective methods and analytical devices suitable for use in nonspecialized laboratories and at the point of need (PON). In recent years, the technology of paper-based microfluidic analytical devices (μPADs) has undergone rapid development and now provides a feasible, low-cost alternative to traditional rapid tests for detecting harmful compounds. In fact, µPADs have been developed to detect toxic molecules (arsenic, cyanide, ethanol, and nitrite), drugs, and drugs of abuse (benzodiazepines, cathinones, cocaine, fentanyl, ketamine, MDMA, morphine, synthetic cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, and xylazine), and also psychoactive substances used for drug-facilitated crimes (flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), ketamine, metamizole, midazolam, and scopolamine). The present report critically evaluates the recent developments in paper-based devices, particularly in detection methods, and how these new analytical tools have been tested in forensic and clinical toxicology, also including future perspectives on their application, such as multisensing paper-based devices, microfluidic paper-based separation, and wearable paper-based sensors.

Application of Paper-Based Microfluidic Analytical Devices (µPAD) in Forensic and Clinical Toxicology: A Review

Grazioli C.;Dossi N.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The need for providing rapid and, possibly, on-the-spot analytical results in the case of intoxication has prompted researchers to develop rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective methods and analytical devices suitable for use in nonspecialized laboratories and at the point of need (PON). In recent years, the technology of paper-based microfluidic analytical devices (μPADs) has undergone rapid development and now provides a feasible, low-cost alternative to traditional rapid tests for detecting harmful compounds. In fact, µPADs have been developed to detect toxic molecules (arsenic, cyanide, ethanol, and nitrite), drugs, and drugs of abuse (benzodiazepines, cathinones, cocaine, fentanyl, ketamine, MDMA, morphine, synthetic cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, and xylazine), and also psychoactive substances used for drug-facilitated crimes (flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), ketamine, metamizole, midazolam, and scopolamine). The present report critically evaluates the recent developments in paper-based devices, particularly in detection methods, and how these new analytical tools have been tested in forensic and clinical toxicology, also including future perspectives on their application, such as multisensing paper-based devices, microfluidic paper-based separation, and wearable paper-based sensors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11390/1260024
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