Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening condition mainly due to the neurotoxicity of ammonia. Ammonia scavengers may be insufficient, and extracorporeal treatment may be required. Continuous treatments are preferred, and a high-dose continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) must be prescribed to ensure a fast ammonia depletion. Many of the children with hyperammonemia are newborns, with lower blood volume than older children. The majority of the CRRT systems are adult-based, with large extracorporeal priming volumes and inadequate UF control. Recent strides have been made in the development of CRRT systems more suitable for young children with smaller sets to use in adult machines and dedicated monitors for neonates and infants. The main advantage of the machines for adults is the higher dialysis fluid flows, however with greater hemodynamic risks. Pediatric monitors have been designed to reduce the extracorporeal volume and to increase the precision of the treatment. However, they have substantial limitation in clearance performances. In this review, we discuss on current strategies to provide CRRT in newborns and small infants with hyperammonemia. We also presented our experience with the use of CARPEDIEM™ implemented in a CVVHDF modality, boosting the diffusive clearance with a post-replacement convective mechanism.

Expanding the Spectrum of Extracorporeal Strategies in Small Infants with Hyperammonemia

Vidal E.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening condition mainly due to the neurotoxicity of ammonia. Ammonia scavengers may be insufficient, and extracorporeal treatment may be required. Continuous treatments are preferred, and a high-dose continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) must be prescribed to ensure a fast ammonia depletion. Many of the children with hyperammonemia are newborns, with lower blood volume than older children. The majority of the CRRT systems are adult-based, with large extracorporeal priming volumes and inadequate UF control. Recent strides have been made in the development of CRRT systems more suitable for young children with smaller sets to use in adult machines and dedicated monitors for neonates and infants. The main advantage of the machines for adults is the higher dialysis fluid flows, however with greater hemodynamic risks. Pediatric monitors have been designed to reduce the extracorporeal volume and to increase the precision of the treatment. However, they have substantial limitation in clearance performances. In this review, we discuss on current strategies to provide CRRT in newborns and small infants with hyperammonemia. We also presented our experience with the use of CARPEDIEM™ implemented in a CVVHDF modality, boosting the diffusive clearance with a post-replacement convective mechanism.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11390/1264485
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