Natural and synthetic retinoids have proved to be effective in the treatment and prevention of various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effect of retinoids on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), since these cells closely resemble those that give rise to EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in the immunosuppressed host. All six compounds tested inhibited LCL proliferation with no significant direct cytotoxicity, but 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-RA, and all-trans-RA (ATRA) were markedly more efficacious than Ro40-8757, Ro13-6298, and etretinate. The antiproliferative action of the three most effective compounds was confirmed in a large panel of LCLs, thus appearing as a generalized phenomenon in these cells. LCL growth was irreversibly inhibited even after 2 days of treatment at drug concentrations corresponding to therapeutically achievable plasma levels. Retinoid-treated cells showed a marked downregulation of CD71 and a decreased S-phase compartment with a parallel accumulation in Gzero/ G1 phases. These cell cycle perturbations were associated with the upregulation of p27 Kip1, a nuclear protein that controls entrance and progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Unlike what is observed in other systems, the antiproliferative effect exerted by retinoids on LCLs was not due to the acquisition of a terminally differentiated status. In fact, retinoid-induced modifications of cell morphology, phenotype (downregulation of CD19, HLA-DR, and s-Ig, and increased expression of CD38 and c-Ig), and IgM production were late events, highly heterogeneous, and often slightly relevant, being therefore only partially indicative of a drug-related differentiative process. Moreover, EBV-encoded EBV nuclear antigen-2 and latent membrane protein-1 proteins were inconstantly downregulated by retinoids, indicating that their growth-inhibitory effect is not mediated by a direct modulation of viral latent antigen expression. The strong antiproliferative activity exerted by retinoids in our experimental model indicates that these compounds may represent a useful tool in the medical management of EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders of immunosuppressed patients.

Retinoids irreversibly inhibit in vitro growth of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.

DE VITA, Salvatore;
1996

Abstract

Natural and synthetic retinoids have proved to be effective in the treatment and prevention of various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effect of retinoids on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), since these cells closely resemble those that give rise to EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in the immunosuppressed host. All six compounds tested inhibited LCL proliferation with no significant direct cytotoxicity, but 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-RA, and all-trans-RA (ATRA) were markedly more efficacious than Ro40-8757, Ro13-6298, and etretinate. The antiproliferative action of the three most effective compounds was confirmed in a large panel of LCLs, thus appearing as a generalized phenomenon in these cells. LCL growth was irreversibly inhibited even after 2 days of treatment at drug concentrations corresponding to therapeutically achievable plasma levels. Retinoid-treated cells showed a marked downregulation of CD71 and a decreased S-phase compartment with a parallel accumulation in Gzero/ G1 phases. These cell cycle perturbations were associated with the upregulation of p27 Kip1, a nuclear protein that controls entrance and progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Unlike what is observed in other systems, the antiproliferative effect exerted by retinoids on LCLs was not due to the acquisition of a terminally differentiated status. In fact, retinoid-induced modifications of cell morphology, phenotype (downregulation of CD19, HLA-DR, and s-Ig, and increased expression of CD38 and c-Ig), and IgM production were late events, highly heterogeneous, and often slightly relevant, being therefore only partially indicative of a drug-related differentiative process. Moreover, EBV-encoded EBV nuclear antigen-2 and latent membrane protein-1 proteins were inconstantly downregulated by retinoids, indicating that their growth-inhibitory effect is not mediated by a direct modulation of viral latent antigen expression. The strong antiproliferative activity exerted by retinoids in our experimental model indicates that these compounds may represent a useful tool in the medical management of EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders of immunosuppressed patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/679052
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