Benzodiazepine (BDZ) infusion has been shown to reduce blood pressure in both humans and animals. Although the inhibitory effects of BDZ on the central nervous system have been well documented, less is known about the direct effects of BDZ on the vascular bed. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the BDZ midazolam on the vascular system in C57/BL6 mouse aortic rings and to investigate the mechanisms of its direct vascular action. We found that midazolam induced reversible, dose-dependent vasodilation in potassium-and phenylephrine-precontracted rings. In rings that were precontracted with potassium or phenylephrine, treatment with 10 mu mol l(-1) midazolam increased vasodilation by 15 and 60%, respectively, compared with baseline. Vasodilation increased by 80 and 87%, respectively, after treatment with 50 mu mol l(-1) midazolam. Only the low concentration of midazolam (10 mu mol l(-1)) induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in phenylephrine-precontracted rings. Vasodilation increased by 60% in rings with endothelium and by 20% in rings without endothelium. Conversely, only the high concentration of midazolam (50 mu mol l(-1)) reduced the CaCl2-induced vasoconstriction of aortic rings with EC50 (the concentration giving 50% of the maximal effect) values of 1 and 6 mmol l(-1) for vehicle-and midazolam-treated rings, respectively. Furthermore, the incubation of phenylephrine-precontracted rings with an inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the inhibitors of central or peripheral type BDZ receptors (flumazenil or PK 11195, respectively) produced no change in midazolam-induced vasodilation. Thus, low concentrations of midazolam induce vasodilation via an endothelium-dependent mechanism that does not involve NO production. In contrast, high concentrations of midazolam induce vasodilation via an endothelium-independent mechanism that implies reduced sensitivity of aortic rings to calcium ions. Additionally, neither the central gamma-amino-butyric acid receptor type A nor the peripheral type BDZ receptors seem to be involved in the mechanism of midazolam-induced vasodilation. Hypertension Research (2011) 34, 929-934; doi:10.1038/hr.2011.62; published online 26 May 2011

Involvement of endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms in midazolam-induced vasodilation

COLUSSI, Gian Luca;CATENA, Cristiana;SECHI, Leonardo Alberto
2011-01-01

Abstract

Benzodiazepine (BDZ) infusion has been shown to reduce blood pressure in both humans and animals. Although the inhibitory effects of BDZ on the central nervous system have been well documented, less is known about the direct effects of BDZ on the vascular bed. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the BDZ midazolam on the vascular system in C57/BL6 mouse aortic rings and to investigate the mechanisms of its direct vascular action. We found that midazolam induced reversible, dose-dependent vasodilation in potassium-and phenylephrine-precontracted rings. In rings that were precontracted with potassium or phenylephrine, treatment with 10 mu mol l(-1) midazolam increased vasodilation by 15 and 60%, respectively, compared with baseline. Vasodilation increased by 80 and 87%, respectively, after treatment with 50 mu mol l(-1) midazolam. Only the low concentration of midazolam (10 mu mol l(-1)) induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in phenylephrine-precontracted rings. Vasodilation increased by 60% in rings with endothelium and by 20% in rings without endothelium. Conversely, only the high concentration of midazolam (50 mu mol l(-1)) reduced the CaCl2-induced vasoconstriction of aortic rings with EC50 (the concentration giving 50% of the maximal effect) values of 1 and 6 mmol l(-1) for vehicle-and midazolam-treated rings, respectively. Furthermore, the incubation of phenylephrine-precontracted rings with an inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the inhibitors of central or peripheral type BDZ receptors (flumazenil or PK 11195, respectively) produced no change in midazolam-induced vasodilation. Thus, low concentrations of midazolam induce vasodilation via an endothelium-dependent mechanism that does not involve NO production. In contrast, high concentrations of midazolam induce vasodilation via an endothelium-independent mechanism that implies reduced sensitivity of aortic rings to calcium ions. Additionally, neither the central gamma-amino-butyric acid receptor type A nor the peripheral type BDZ receptors seem to be involved in the mechanism of midazolam-induced vasodilation. Hypertension Research (2011) 34, 929-934; doi:10.1038/hr.2011.62; published online 26 May 2011
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
HypRes_midazolam.pdf

non disponibili

Tipologia: Altro materiale allegato
Licenza: Non pubblico
Dimensione 1.87 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.87 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11390/879418
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 25
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 23
social impact