The nutritional benefits of fish or fish oil consumption lies predominantly in its advantageous fatty acid profile, which is rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFA). Evidence from a large number of epidemiological studies, clinical studies and intervention trials have established the protective effect of co3 PUFA against several diseases. New experimental evidence also indicates the presence in fish oils of other class of bioactive fatty acids, such as the furan fatty acid (F-acids). Dietary recommendations suggest that the consumption of ω3 PUFA should be increased. The great variability of fatty acid composition of fish species throughout the year should be considered when fish are suggested as a means of improving health or used for oil extraction. The fish oil remains the principal source of ω3 PUFA as an ingredient into conventional food products enrichment and in ω3 PUFA concentrates production (i.e. integrator, nutraceutical), even if a variety of alternative ω3 PUFA sources, such as bacteria, fungi, plants and microalgae are currently being explored for commercial production. The present review summarizes the beneficial effects of ω3 PUFA dietary supplementation on cardiovascular disease, neurological disorder and type 2 diabetes as well as the biological actions of F-acids. Furthermore, in order to present the fish as a dietary source of bioactive fatty acids, differences in fatty acid composition of various fish species are recognized. The alternative ways to ensure an optimal ω3 PUFA intake are also provided by illustrating the possible applications of fish oil on the ω3 PUFA enrichment of functional foods. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Bioactive fish fatty acids: Health effects and their use as functional food ingredients

LUCCI, Paolo;
2013

Abstract

The nutritional benefits of fish or fish oil consumption lies predominantly in its advantageous fatty acid profile, which is rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFA). Evidence from a large number of epidemiological studies, clinical studies and intervention trials have established the protective effect of co3 PUFA against several diseases. New experimental evidence also indicates the presence in fish oils of other class of bioactive fatty acids, such as the furan fatty acid (F-acids). Dietary recommendations suggest that the consumption of ω3 PUFA should be increased. The great variability of fatty acid composition of fish species throughout the year should be considered when fish are suggested as a means of improving health or used for oil extraction. The fish oil remains the principal source of ω3 PUFA as an ingredient into conventional food products enrichment and in ω3 PUFA concentrates production (i.e. integrator, nutraceutical), even if a variety of alternative ω3 PUFA sources, such as bacteria, fungi, plants and microalgae are currently being explored for commercial production. The present review summarizes the beneficial effects of ω3 PUFA dietary supplementation on cardiovascular disease, neurological disorder and type 2 diabetes as well as the biological actions of F-acids. Furthermore, in order to present the fish as a dietary source of bioactive fatty acids, differences in fatty acid composition of various fish species are recognized. The alternative ways to ensure an optimal ω3 PUFA intake are also provided by illustrating the possible applications of fish oil on the ω3 PUFA enrichment of functional foods. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1091270
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