Cationic porphyrins bearing an alkyl side chain of 14 (2b) or 18 (2d) carbons dramatically inhibit proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells following treatment with light. We have compared two different ways of delivering porphyrin 2d: either in free form or engrafted into palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes (L-2d). Cell cytometry shows that while free 2d is taken up by pancreatic cancer cells by active (endocytosis) and passive (membrane fusion) transports, L-2d is internalized solely by endocytosis. Confocal microscopy showed that free 2d co-localizes with the cell membrane and lysosomes, whereas L-2d partly co-localizes with lysosomes and ER. It is found that free 2d inhibits the KRAS-Nrf2-GPX4 axis and strongly triggers lipid peroxidation, resulting in cell death by ferroptosis. By contrast, L-2d does not affect the KRAS-Nrf2-GPX4 axis and activates cell death mainly through apoptosis. Overall, our study demonstrates for the first time that cationic alkyl porphyrins, which have a IC50 ~ 23 nM, activate a dual mechanism of cell death, ferroptosis and apoptosis, where the predominant form depends on the delivery mode.

Photosensitization of pancreatic cancer cells by cationic alkyl-porphyrins in free form or engrafted into POPC liposomes: The relationship between delivery mode and mechanism of cell death

Eros Di Giorgio;Annalisa Ferino;Francesca D'Este;Valentina Rapozzi;Luigi E. Xodo
2022

Abstract

Cationic porphyrins bearing an alkyl side chain of 14 (2b) or 18 (2d) carbons dramatically inhibit proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells following treatment with light. We have compared two different ways of delivering porphyrin 2d: either in free form or engrafted into palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes (L-2d). Cell cytometry shows that while free 2d is taken up by pancreatic cancer cells by active (endocytosis) and passive (membrane fusion) transports, L-2d is internalized solely by endocytosis. Confocal microscopy showed that free 2d co-localizes with the cell membrane and lysosomes, whereas L-2d partly co-localizes with lysosomes and ER. It is found that free 2d inhibits the KRAS-Nrf2-GPX4 axis and strongly triggers lipid peroxidation, resulting in cell death by ferroptosis. By contrast, L-2d does not affect the KRAS-Nrf2-GPX4 axis and activates cell death mainly through apoptosis. Overall, our study demonstrates for the first time that cationic alkyl porphyrins, which have a IC50 ~ 23 nM, activate a dual mechanism of cell death, ferroptosis and apoptosis, where the predominant form depends on the delivery mode.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1229070
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