Avalanche photodiodes based on GaAs/AlGaAs with separated absorption and multiplication regions (SAM-APDs) will be discussed in terms of capacitance, response to light (gain and noise) and time response. The structures have been fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy introducing a δ p layer doped with carbon to separate the multiplication and the absorption regions. The thickness of the latter layer defines the detection efficiency and the time resolution of the structure, which in turn allows tailoring the device for specific scientific applications. Within the multiplication region a periodic modulation of the bandgap is obtained by growing alternating nanometric layers of AlGaAs and GaAs with increasing Al content; this staircase structure enables the tuning of the bandgap and subsequently provides a well-defined charge multiplication. The use of such staircase hetero-junctions enhances electron multiplication and conversely reduces—at least in principle—the impact of the noise associated to hole multiplication, which should result in a decreased overall noise, when compared to p-i-n diodes composed by a single material. The first part of this paper focuses on the electrical characteristics of the grown structure and on the comparison with the simulated behaviour of such devices. In addition, gain and noise measurements, which have been carried out on these devices by utilizing photons from visible light to hard X-rays, will be discussed and will be compared to the results of a nonlocal history-dependent model specifically developed for staircase APDs.

Gain and noise in GaAs/AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes with thin multiplication regions

NICHETTI, Camilla;PILOTTO, ALESSANDRO;Driussi, F.;Palestri, P.;Selmi, L.;
2019

Abstract

Avalanche photodiodes based on GaAs/AlGaAs with separated absorption and multiplication regions (SAM-APDs) will be discussed in terms of capacitance, response to light (gain and noise) and time response. The structures have been fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy introducing a δ p layer doped with carbon to separate the multiplication and the absorption regions. The thickness of the latter layer defines the detection efficiency and the time resolution of the structure, which in turn allows tailoring the device for specific scientific applications. Within the multiplication region a periodic modulation of the bandgap is obtained by growing alternating nanometric layers of AlGaAs and GaAs with increasing Al content; this staircase structure enables the tuning of the bandgap and subsequently provides a well-defined charge multiplication. The use of such staircase hetero-junctions enhances electron multiplication and conversely reduces—at least in principle—the impact of the noise associated to hole multiplication, which should result in a decreased overall noise, when compared to p-i-n diodes composed by a single material. The first part of this paper focuses on the electrical characteristics of the grown structure and on the comparison with the simulated behaviour of such devices. In addition, gain and noise measurements, which have been carried out on these devices by utilizing photons from visible light to hard X-rays, will be discussed and will be compared to the results of a nonlocal history-dependent model specifically developed for staircase APDs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1142439
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