Few Italian and European studies have assessed adherence to dietary recommendations in primary school children using dietary records. No Italian studies have provided an index-based nutritional adequacy assessment. We provided a comprehensive overview of dietary intake in 381 7-year-old children from NAC-II cohort study, Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy). Energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were derived from 3-day dietary records. Standard (median and percentage) and index-based (Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR)) approaches were used to evaluate adequacy to Italian dietary reference values at nutrient-and overall-diet-level. Percentage contribution of macronutrients to energy intake (%En) was unbalanced towards total fats and protein. In 25% of children, total fats intake exceeded the reference intake upper limit. In ~63% of children, protein intake was at least doubled in their child-specific population reference intake. Median intakes of sodium (1.7 g/day), saturated fatty acids (12.2 %En), and soluble carbohydrates (19.4 %En) exceeded the suggested dietary target in most (65–84%) children. Inadequacy was also observed for micronutrients, with median NARs ranging from 0.11 (vitamin D) to 0.90 (zinc). The median MAR was 0.75 (0.69–0.79), with 1 indicating optimal overall dietary intake. In conclusion, the enrolled children showed suboptimal intakes of several macro-and micronutrients, in line with Italian and European studies on primary school children. Based on the current findings, public health interventions may be targeted to specific nutrients or subpopulations.

Adherence to Dietary Recommendations of 7-Year-Old Children from a Birth Cohort in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy

Giordani, Elisa;Marinoni, Michela;Fiori, Federica
;
Concina, Federica;Barbone, Fabio;Parpinel, Maria
2022

Abstract

Few Italian and European studies have assessed adherence to dietary recommendations in primary school children using dietary records. No Italian studies have provided an index-based nutritional adequacy assessment. We provided a comprehensive overview of dietary intake in 381 7-year-old children from NAC-II cohort study, Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy). Energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were derived from 3-day dietary records. Standard (median and percentage) and index-based (Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR)) approaches were used to evaluate adequacy to Italian dietary reference values at nutrient-and overall-diet-level. Percentage contribution of macronutrients to energy intake (%En) was unbalanced towards total fats and protein. In 25% of children, total fats intake exceeded the reference intake upper limit. In ~63% of children, protein intake was at least doubled in their child-specific population reference intake. Median intakes of sodium (1.7 g/day), saturated fatty acids (12.2 %En), and soluble carbohydrates (19.4 %En) exceeded the suggested dietary target in most (65–84%) children. Inadequacy was also observed for micronutrients, with median NARs ranging from 0.11 (vitamin D) to 0.90 (zinc). The median MAR was 0.75 (0.69–0.79), with 1 indicating optimal overall dietary intake. In conclusion, the enrolled children showed suboptimal intakes of several macro-and micronutrients, in line with Italian and European studies on primary school children. Based on the current findings, public health interventions may be targeted to specific nutrients or subpopulations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11390/1218878
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